Screening for eye diseases involves going to your eye care professionals such as optician, optometrist and ophthalmologist (eye doctor) to have your vision measured and eye examined thoroughly for any eye diseases.
This is because certain eye diseases (such as glaucoma, diabetic eye disease or drug toxicity) may not give you any symptoms in the early stages of disease. However, when the vision is affected at the late stage, the condition may be so advance that the vision cannot be saved by either medication or surgery. The frequency for an eye check usually depends on the age of the person and any rich factors the person may have.
These risk factors depends on whether the person wears glasses or contact lenses, family has history of eye disease, type of medical disease or medication the person is on.
It is recommended that normal healthy adults should have a comprehensive eye examination every two years. After the age of 60 years, the risk of developing cataracts and age-related macular degeneration is higher and as such, should have a yearly eye check. Those who are at risk of eye diseases should have more frequent eye examination.
Routine eye exams are essential for children to learn in school as most of the information children receive in classrooms are presented visually. Inability to see what the teacher has written on the black or white board can lead to poor comprehension and ultimately poor school results! It is recommended that children should have their first eye examination at age three years and again at the start of school (around 6 years). Risk-free children should then continue to have their eyes examined every two years until age 18. Children who wear glasses or contact lenses should have their eyes examined yearly as the prescription may change within this period.
Children with risk factors for vision problems may need their first eye examination earlier and may need more frequent eye examinations throughout childhood.
Risk factors for children include:
Using specialized equipment, the eye care professional can conduct an external and internal examination of the various parts of your vision system including the eyelashes, eyelids, conjunctiva, iris, lens, cornea, pupils, extra-ocular muscles, blood vessels, optic nerve and the retina. He will be able to determine whether you need glasses by measuring your refractive error which could be short-sightedness, long-sightedness or astigmatism. An eye doctor will be required to determine whether you have any eye diseases.
A comprehensive eye test should include the following:
There are several types of eye care professionals namely ophthalmologists, optometrists and opticians.
Who you should see depends on your needs.
Medical doctors who specialize and treat eye diseases and perform eye surgery. These eye doctors have completed medical school and have undergone additional post-graduate training in medical and surgical eye care.
Eye care professionals who can prescribe glasses and contact lenses. They are well-trained in refraction and can measure your prescription for your glasses or contact lenses. They can also help you choose the types of spectacles frames most suited to your face and recommend suitable lenses. Although they are not doctors, they have being trained to recognize simple eye diseases and will refer these patients to the ophthalmologist who will treat the eye diseases.